- General Terms and Conditions
- Publishing Guidelines
- Purchase of Goods - Terms and Conditions
- NSW Safer Drivers Course
- NSW Safer Drivers Course Gift Voucher - Terms and Conditions
- NRMA Safer Driving Program – Terms and Conditions
- NRMA Member Lesson Voucher - Terms and Conditions
1. Conditions of use
1.1 This document contains the terms and conditions which apply to your use of the NRMA Safer Driving School Pty Ltd ("NRMA Safer Driving School" or "we") web site ('web site'). In addition to the General Conditions set out in this document, there are also specific and additional terms and conditions, which form part of the General Conditions and govern your use of NRMA Safer Driving School's web site. Since you are also bound to these specific terms and conditions, you should review them before using our web site.
1.2 Your use of this web site is governed by these terms and conditions and any additional terms and conditions posted on the web site from time to time ('Terms').
1.4 By using the NRMA Safer Driving School website, you affirm that you are 18 years or over or otherwise possess legal parental or guardian consent.
2. Copyright and Trademarks
2.1 What you can do: All the material on this web site is subject to the copyright of NRMA Safer Driving School or its third party licensors. You must not reproduce any of the material contained on this web site except that you may:
a. Download a copy of this web site to the local hard drive of the computer used to access the site; and
b. Print extracts (hard copies) of this web site, but only for your personal use.
2.2 What you cannot do:
a. Copy any of the material on this web site or otherwise incorporate into or store in any other web site, electronic retrieval system, publication or other work in any form; or
b. Provide a link to this web site from another web site without NRMA Safer Driving School's prior written consent.
2.3 The NRMA & NRMA Safer Driving School logo is a registered trademark of NRMA Motoring and Services. Other trademarks may be displayed on the web site from time to time. These may belong to third parties. Nothing displayed on the web site should be construed as granting any licence or right of use of any logo or trademark displayed on the web site, without the express written permission of the relevant owner.
3.1 You must not use this web site for any purpose that is unlawful or prohibited by these Terms. You agree to abide by all applicable laws and regulations and codes of conduct.
3.2 In particular, you agree not to:
a. Use this web site to disparage, defame, abuse, harass, stalk, threaten or otherwise offend others;
b. Publish, distribute, email, transmit or disseminate any material which is unlawful, obscene, defamatory, indecent, offensive or inappropriate;
c. Engage in or promote any surveys, contests, pyramid schemes, chain letters, unsolicited emailing or spamming via the web site;
d. Impersonate any person or entity; or
e. Upload, post, email, transmit or otherwise make available using the web site any material that you do not have a right to make available under any law or contractual obligation or which contains viruses, or other computer codes, files or programs designed to interrupt, limit or destroy the functionality of other computer software or hardware.
3.3 NRMA Safer Driving School retains the right at all times to monitor, retain or disclose any information as necessary to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or governmental request.
4.1 The information contained on this web site is for general information purposes only. You must not rely on any statement contained in this web site without taking specialist advice. While we endeavour to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the information contained on this web site, we make no warranties and accept no responsibility for any loss or damage you may suffer as a result or your reliance on any part of it.
4.2 In particular, we make no representations or warranties and exclude all liability:
a. In relation to any of the material of this web site (including any as to the quality, accuracy, completeness or fitness for any particular purpose of such material);
b. In relation to any material of any other web site referred to or accessed by a hyperlink through this web site ('Third Party Web Site'). We do not endorse or approve the material of any Third Party Web Site, nor will we have any liability in connection with any of Third Party Web Site howsoever arising; or
c. That this web site or any of its material is virus free. You should take your own precautions in this respect and we accept no responsibility for any harmful code that may be introduced into your system by using this web site.
Although we will do our best to provide constant, uninterrupted access to this web site, we cannot and do not guarantee this. We accept no responsibility or liability for any interruption or delay.
Individual advertisers are solely responsible for the content of any advertising material which is submitted to us and published on the web site, including ensuring that it complies with relevant legislation. We accept no responsibility for the content of any advertising material published on this web site.
8. Liability and Indemnity
8.1 You will indemnify us if we suffer any loss or damage or incur any costs in connection with your breach of these Terms or any other legal obligation by you or your use of or conduct on the web site.
8.2 NRMA Safer Driving School does not exclude any rights and remedies available to you in terms of the Consumer and Competition Act 2010 (Cth) or any similar State or Territory legislation in relation to the provision by us of any goods or services via the web site which cannot be excluded, restricted or modified. Otherwise we exclude all conditions and warranties which may be implied by law.
8.3 To the extent permitted by law, our liability for breach of any implied warranty or condition which cannot be excluded is restricted, at our option, to:
a. In the case of services supplied or offered by us:
i. The re-supply of those services; or
ii. The payment of the cost of having those services re-supplied; and
b. In the case of goods supplied or offered by us:
i. The replacement of the goods or the supply of equivalent goods; or
ii. The repair of the goods;
iii. The payment of the cost of having the goods replaced; or
iv. The payment of the cost of having the goods repaired.
9.1 Variations: These Terms may be varied from time to time. Please ensure that you review these Terms regularly as you will be deemed to have accepted a variation if you continue to use the site after it has been posted.
9.2 Applicable law: These Terms will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the state of New South Wales, Australia.
9.3 Contact Details: Please contact our webmaster should you have any technical issues regarding this web site.
9.4 All contents of the NRMA Safer Driving School web site are copyright © 2010 NRMA Safer Driving School Pty Ltd and / or our licensors. All rights reserved
9.5 NRMA Safer Driving School's General Conditions govern the purchase of goods and services and the use of NRMA Safer Driving School's web site.
10. Links to Web Sites of Third Parties
10.1 In connection with the arrangement of reservations and the purchase of tickets and vouchers, NRMA Safer Driving School's web site may contain hyperlinks to web sites operated by third parties ("Third Parties"). These linked web sites do not form part of NRMA Safer Driving School's web site, are not under the control of the NRMA Safer Driving School and NRMA Safer Driving School is not responsible or liable for any content on any linked web site or any hyperlink contained in a linked web site.
11. Governing Law
These terms and conditions are governed by the laws of New South Wales, Australia. We and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of New South Wales.
1.1 The areas of this web site where users can contribute material are as follows:
a. Instructor student comments
b. Instructor feedback comments
c. Franchisee feedback
d. Franchisee customer comments
e. IAG retail customer comments
1.2 Further information about each of these areas may be found on the appropriate part of the web site.
2. Contributed Material
2.1 If you wish to submit Material to the web site, you agree to do so on the additional terms and conditions set out in this clause 2.
2.2 All copies of user contributed material, including text, images and photos ('Material'), becomes the property of NRMA Safer Driving School.
2.3 NRMA Safer Driving School reserves the right to do any of the following:
a. Select Material to be displayed on the web site;
b. Remove any Material at any time;
c. Amend, alter, edit or delete any Material you submit without any right of attribution to you; and
d. Use any photos submitted as Material in any way that NRMA Safer Driving School sees fit.
2.4 In submitting Material, you:
a. Warrant that that any Material you submit is your own work and that you own all intellectual property rights in it; and
b. Warrant that any Material you submit for publication or which is published on the bulletin and/or postcard boards is not obscene, defamatory, offensive or otherwise illegal.
2.5 When contributing Material to the web site, you must not include:
a. Information that helps sell, buy, solicit or offer goods, services, shares or other commodities including any phone numbers, mail or email addresses or URLs;
b. Personal information, or the personal details of others such as phone numbers, mail or email addresses;
c. Offensive or otherwise unsuitable images of a sexual or other inappropriate nature;
d. Spamming, flaming or typing in ALL CAPS;
e. Advertising or promotion of external URLs, competitions, sites or products;
f. Gratuitous swearing, profanity or spiteful remarks;
g. Reference to, or provide links to illegal activities e.g. insider trading, ramping/hyping stocks, defamation, vilification, pornography, racial or sexual slurs, drug use;
h. False or misleading or deceptive information; or
i. Misinformation or rumour.
3. Liability for Material
3.1 Any opinions expressed in Material are those of the users.
3.2 NRMA Safer Driving School:
a. Is not responsible for, and does not accept any liability in respect of, any Material; and
b. Does not check the content or accuracy of any Material.
1. All information about the goods and services on this web site has been provided 'as is'. Although we have endeavoured to provide information which we believe to be correct at the time of entry, we make no representation or warranty that the information on the web site including any descriptions of the goods and services is accurate, complete, reliable, current or error-free.
2. Prices and availability of goods and services are subject to change at any time without notice. Discounted Prices are only for Members of Australian Partner Motoring Associations however occasionally we may offer discounts to non-members. The NRMA Safer Driving School reserves the right to correct pricing errors at any time. In the event we discover a pricing error, we will attempt to notify you as soon as possible about the error and, if you decide against the purchase, we will process a refund for the item or items in question.
3. Unless otherwise indicated on this web site, all goods and services available for purchase are priced in Australian Dollars and inclusive of GST.
4. The goods and services offered on this web site are only available to persons who are capable of entering into a legally binding contract with the NRMA Safer Driving School. Without limiting the foregoing, by utilising this web site to place an order, you warrant to the NRMA Safer Driving School that you are 18 or more years of age or otherwise possess legal parental or guardian consent and that you are authorised and able to make payment in the manner selected by you. You also warrant to the NRMA Safer Driving School that all information given by you to the NRMA Safer Driving School through this site (including your name, contact and address details, credit card details) are correct.
5. No contract for the purchase of goods and services will be formed until your order has been accepted by us by sending you a receipt or invoice number. The contract will be deemed to be formed at the time and place where you receive our acceptance. We reserve the right to reject your order for any reason. You warrant that any purchase made by you from us is not for the purpose of commercial resale.
6. Payments can be made with a valid credit/debit cards (Visa, MasterCard, via our secure payment gateway or Paypal). Paypal payment option is not available for the NSW Safer Drivers Course product.
7. Our aim is to hold stock or have immediate access to the goods and services available for sale on-line. However the availability of goods or services may change from time to time as unforseen supply problems or unexpected demand may occasionally result in stock being unavailable. NRMA Safer Driving School is not liable for any loss or damage whatsoever arising from failure to deliver or delay in delivery of any goods or services.
8. All goods purchased from NRMA Safer Driving School's web site are delivered by a freight carrier. The risk of loss and title for the goods pass to you upon our delivery to the carrier. We do not ship to addresses outside Australia.
9. Delivery will occur between 5 and 10 business days after acceptance of an order. These delivery times are a general guide only and NRMA Safer Driving School accepts no responsibility for delays in delivery.
10. Warranty and Liability
10.1 These Terms & Conditions and the Laws of New South Wales, Australia, apply to all transactions for the purchase of goods and services through this web site. No conditions or warranties apply or are given unless expressly set out in the Terms & Conditions. NRMA Safer Driving School does not exclude any rights and remedies available to you in terms of the Consumer and Competition Act 2010 (Cth) or any similar State or Territory legislation in relation to the provision by us of any goods or services via the web site which cannot be excluded, restricted or modified. Otherwise we exclude all conditions and warranties which may be implied by law.
1. NRMA Safer Driving School is accredited by the Roads & Maritime Services (RMS) solely and strictly to deliver the NSW Safer Drivers Course for Learners and must conduct the course at all times in accordance with the course curriculum provided by the Roads & Maritime Services (RMS).
2. You must be under 25 years of age, holds a NSW Learner Logbook and have recorded a minimum of 50 driving hours including 10 night hours (bonus hours not included) as required under the NSW Graduated to book into the NSW Safer Drivers Course for Learners.
3. You must attend the entirety of the course and complete both Module 1 & Module 2 within 30 days of each other to be eligible for the allocated logbook hours.
4. NRMA has the right to cancel or postpone modules if minimum numbers are not received by the scheduled course date.
5. You must bring your Learner Licence and Learner Logbook to both Modules of the Safer Drivers Course and your Logbook must be up-to-date. In the event that you are unable to provide the above listed items on the day you will not be eligible to complete the course on that day and you will forfeit the full course fee of $140 for NRMA to reschedule affected participants and cover administration costs.
6. Learner drivers must allow a minimum of 30 days post Module 1 for their Licence Test booking.
The NSW Safer Drivers Course is payable in full upfront. If you cancel outside 7 days of your scheduled Module 1 session, you will receive a full refund of the course fee.
If you need to reschedule within 7 days prior to your scheduled Module 1 session, NRMA Safer Driving will make all reasonable attempts to reschedule your session to your preferred session time and date subject to availability. If we are unable to reschedule your Module 1 session to your preferred session and you wish to cancel, or if you want to cancel in general, then you will forfeit the full course fee of $140 for NRMA Safer Driving to reschedule affected participants.
If you reschedule your scheduled Module 2 session after having completed Module 1, you will be required to pay an additional $140 for NRMA to reschedule affected participants and cover administration costs. No-shows and cancellations will forfeit the full course fee of $140.
Roads & Maritime Services (RMS) Privacy Statement:
You understand that 'Service Provider' will disclose your personal information to Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) and that it may be used by the Roads & Maritime Services (RMS) for the purposes of:
• verifying your successful completion of the course; and/or
• contacting you to discuss the feedback on the course, otherwise the Roads & Maritime Services (RMS) will not use or disclose your personal information without your consent unless authorised by law. Your personal information will be held by the Roads & Maritime Services (RMS) at 101 Miller Street, North Sydney, NSW and you can contact RMS to request to access or correct it.
1. Gift vouchers are only redeemable for the NSW Safer Drivers Course delivered by NRMA SDS.
2. Gift vouchers are only valid for use by NSW Learner drivers who are under the age of 25, hold a NSW Learner Logbook and have recorded a minimum of 50 driving hours (bonus hours not included), and have otherwise agreed to the NSW Safer Drivers Course Terms and Conditions.
3. Gift vouchers are redeemable at locations across NSW where NRMA Safer Driving School provides the NSW Safer Drivers Course for learners.
4. Gift vouchers must be fully redeemed by the expiry date shown on the gift voucher.
5. Gift vouchers are non-transferable and cannot be redeemed for cash or used in conjunction with any other discount or offer.
6. All NSW Safer Course module bookings are subject to availability and cancellations can only be made in line with the NSW Safer Drivers Course Cancellation Policy
7. Gift vouchers should be delivered within 5 working days. However the shipping location will affect delivery times so it is recommended that up to 10 business days is allowed for gift vouchers to arrive.
8. Gift voucher recipients must receive their NRMA Safer Driving School Gift Voucher in order to book their NSW Safer Drivers Course. NRMA Safer Driving School Gift Vouchers contain a unique 4-6 digit code which must be quoted at the time of booking the NSW Safer Drivers Course.
1. General Conditions
1.1 Driving lessons are provided by NRMA Safer Driving Schools Pty Limited (ACN 122 086 248) of 9 George Street, North Strathfield New South Wales 2137 ('NRMA Safer Driving School') or by its contracted instructors. Where NRMA Safer Driving School is the provider, these terms govern the agreement between the participant ("you") and NRMA Safer Driving School. Where an instructor is the provider, that instructor provides the lessons in its own right, and these terms govern your agreement with the instructor. NRMA or the instructor (as the case may be) is referred to as "we", "our" and "us" in these terms and conditions. By booking a driving lesson or lessons as part of NRMA's Safer Driving Program ("Program"), you accept these terms and conditions ("Terms").
1.2 These Terms may be varied from time to time and will be updated on the website at www.nrmasaferdriving.com.au. You will be bound by the Terms you accept at the time of booking your lesson. If you book more than one lesson at the same time, the terms and conditions applicable at the time of booking will apply to each lesson booked at that time.
2. Lesson Bookings
2.1 Lessons must be booked via one of the following channels authorised by us:
a. NRMA Safer Driving website www.nrmasaferdriving.com.au
b. NRMA Safer Driving Call Centre 1300 696 762.
c. NRMA Safer Driving School contracted instructor or representative.
2.2 Standard lesson bookings can be made up to 12 hours prior to lesson time pending instructor availability. Lesson may be paid for at the beginning of the lesson or as otherwise agreed with the instructor.
2.3 We offer a variety of lesson products, however the accessibility of these products are dependent on the student's skill level and experience.
3. Payment Conditions
3.1 All bookings must be paid for in full prior to the commencement of the lesson unless otherwise agreed with the instructor.
3.2 We accept credit/debit cards (Visa, Mastercard via our secure payment gateway or Paypal). Any other payment methods need to be approved with your instructor at least 48hours prior to the lesson.
3.3 We reserve the right to offer certain lesson and package types where additional booking and refund restrictions may apply. If any additional booking or refund restrictions do apply, we will notify you at the time any offer is made.
3.4 By booking a lesson, you warrant to us that you are 18 or more years of age or otherwise possess legal parental or guardian consent and that you are authorised and able to make payment in the manner selected by you. You also warrant to us that all information given by you to us through any booking channel (including your name, contact and address details) is correct.
4. Fees and cancellations/rescheduled bookings
4.1 You must give more than 18 hours notice to cancel a lesson booking or your lesson fee will be payable.
4.2 You must give more than 18 hours notice to reschedule a lesson booking. If a booking is rescheduled by providing less than 18 hours notice the lesson fee will be payable.
4.3 We reserve the right to reschedule a lesson subject to the provision of reasonable notice. We reserve the right to refuse to provide a lesson where you are unfit to operate a vehicle as reasonably determined by us.
5. Promotions, Discounts & Free tuition
5.1 Any discounts or free lesson are not transferrable or redeemable for cash.
5.2 Promotions at times we may run varying promotions and in certain cases additional or different rules may apply. If additional or different rules do apply, we will notify you at the time of the promotion.
6. Gift Vouchers
6.1 Are non-refundable, not redeemable for cash. They are not transferrable and cannot be resold. Cancellation and promotional conditions apply.
7.1 On-road lessons commence and end at the pre-determined pick-up point, determined at the time of booking the lesson. The duration of a standard on-road lesson is one our, including lesson briefing and de-briefing, (excluding the first lesson - see clause 9.2).
8. Provision of Lessons
8.1 You must hold a current NSW/ACT driving licence (Class C LRN or C) or equivalent overseas licence and carry it with you at all times during a lesson.
8.2 The duration of the first standard on-road lesson will be at least60 minutes, which includes briefing and/or debriefing time.
8.3 You must not wear high heels, thongs or other footwear which in the opinion of the instructor may cause safety concerns with the foot controls. A flat, enclosed and secure shoe is recommended.
8.4 Mobile phones must be switched off prior to entering the driving simulator or training vehicle.
8.5 For both simulator and on-road lessons, you must be ready to commence the lesson 10 minutes prior to the agreed time. If you do not turn up at the agreed time for your lesson, your instructor will wait 15 minutes and may at the instructor's reasonable discretion deduct this from the total lesson time. If you turn up outside these times, your instructor may in his/her reasonable discretion choose not to proceed with the lesson and in such circumstances you will be liable for the cost of the lesson.
8.6 While every endeavour is made to commence the lesson at the scheduled time and with the scheduled instructor, no responsibility can be taken for circumstances beyond our control which may delay the start time or result in a change of instructor. If there are circumstances beyond our control which have delayed the start time of your lesson, we will offer you the full lesson time or, if that is not possible, we will offer you a lesson at another time.
8.7 You must comply with the instructions or directions of your instructor at all times, before or during a lesson.
8.8 We reserve the right to terminate a lesson if:
a. you engage in any behaviour that your instructor determines is reckless; or
b. you fail to comply with the instructions or directions of your instructor before or during a lesson; or
c. you fail to comply with any special conditions on your license, i.e. wearing of glasses/contacts; or
d. your instructor has assessed your driving skills and competence and deems you to be unfit or unsafe to drive (see section 11 "Fitness to drive" below).
In the event that a lesson is terminated under the circumstances listed above you will be required to pay the full cost of the terminated lesson.
8.9 If and when you are deemed competent by your instructor, your instructor, may arrange for you to sit your ACT government driving test provided full payment for your driving test is received prior to the driving test being booked.
8.10 Your instructor will only present you to the Roads and Maritime Services (NSW) or ACT Government if they deem you competent to sit your driving test.
8.11 You will only be presented to sit your NSW or ACT Government licence test once you have booked the correct Licence Test lesson type and provided your test time and registry location.
9.1 Use Of Own Vehicle: If you are driving in your own vehicle, your instructor must first assess that your vehicle is roadworthy (only a basic external inspection will be carried out) and the following requirements must be met in relation to your vehicle:
a. the registration label of your vehicle is valid, current, intact and visible.
b. you hold current compulsory third party insurance and comprehensive insurance cover for your vehicle.
c. you have notified your insurance company in writing (prior to your first driving lesson in your vehicle) that your vehicle will be used by an instructor to provide driving lessons.
d. the tyres are correctly inflated (air pressures must reflect the manufacturer's recommendation as a minimum), have appropriate levels of tread and are not damaged.
e. all indicators and brake lights are working.
f. seats and seat belts are in good working order and are not damaged or twisted.
g. any loose items in the cabin of the vehicle are stowed in the cargo (boot) area.
h. the windows and interior are clean.
i. the windscreen is not cracked and shows no signs of damage.
j. the vehicle has sufficient petrol to last the course of the lesson (minimum requirement - a quarter of a tank).
9.2. Instructor Supplied Vehicle: On-road driving lessons are provided in manual or automatic transmission vehicles.
9.3. Instructor supplied vehicles may contain global positioning and monitoring systems with the capacity to identify the location of the vehicle and the manner in which it is operated.
10. Fitness to drive
10.1 In the interests of safety, your instructor may assess your driving skills and competence at any time throughout the course of the Program.
10.2 If necessary, your instructor may refer you to another instructor or to a supervisor for further assessment of your driving skills.
10.3 If at any time you are assessed as unfit or unsafe to drive during a lesson, your instructor may terminate the lesson immediately and may assume control of the vehicle.
10.4 Because the safety of Instructors and Program participants is paramount, Instructors will not enter into any discussions with you regarding an unfit or unsafe driving assessment. If you wish to lodge a complaint about the way in which an assessment was made, please contact the NRMA Safer Driving School Call Centre on 1300 696 762.
11. Limitation of Liability, insurance
11.1 Certain State and Commonwealth legislation, including the Consumer and Competition Act 2010 (Cth), imply warranties or conditions or impose obligations which cannot be excluded, restricted or modified except to a limited extent. These Terms do not purport to exclude any statutory rights available to you and must in all cases be read subject to those statutory provisions. Otherwise we exclude all conditions and warranties which may be implied by law.
11.2 To the extent permitted by law, our liability for breach of any implied warranty or condition which cannot be excluded, is restricted, our option, to:
a. the re-supply of the lessons; or
b. the payment of the cost of having the lessons re-supplied.
11.3 Except for any liability which cannot be excluded by law or that is caused by our negligence, we, our related bodies corporate and our and their officers, employees, franchisees, contractors and agents shall not be liable for any loss, damage or liability whatsoever which is suffered (including but not limited to indirect or consequential loss) or personal injury suffered or sustained as a result of:
a. you participating in a lesson as part of the Program; or
b. your failure or refusal to follow an instruction or direction of your instructor before or during a lesson; or
c. you being assessed by your instructor as an unfit or unsafe driver; or
d. your instructor terminating a lesson in any of the circumstances set out in clause 9.8 or 11.3; or
e. you continuing to drive after you have been assessed as unfit or unsafe to drive by your instructor; or
f. your vehicle being assessed by your instructor as being unsafe to drive and/or un-roadworthy.
11.4 You indemnify and agree to keep us and our related bodies corporate and our and their officers, employees, contractors, franchisees and agents indemnified against any loss, damage, liability, costs and expenses in connection with your breach of these terms and conditions or any other legal obligation by you.
11.5 Neither we nor our driving instructors accept any liability whatsoever for personal property that is left in any instructor supplied vehicle, driving simulator, your vehicle or on our premises.
11.6 If driving lessons take place in your own vehicle, you warrant that you are covered by compulsory third party insurance and that your vehicle is covered by comprehensive insurance.
11.7 We do not accept any responsibility whatsoever for the outcome of any driving test or assessments you take.
1. Available to NRMA Members only.
2. The offer will be applied to lessons that are booked and delivered after 20 August 2012 (for ACT customers) or 1 November 2015 (for NSW customers).
3. The current member offer is as follows: Where you purchase a 5 hour voucher you will receive 5% discount off the total cost of the voucher. Where you purchase a 10 hour voucher you will receive 10% discount off the total cost of the voucher.
4. These lesson vouchers are to be used for one hour ongoing lessons only.
5. Member offers are subject to change. Notice will be provided of such change online.
6. A valid NRMA Membership number is required at the time of booking.
7. The offer is not available in conjunction with any other offer or discount.
8. Lessons are non-transferable and non-redeemable for cash.
9. Lessons are subject to availability. Each voucher is applicable to one instructor only and is not transferable between instructors.